Autism Spectrum Disorder: Types, Characteristics, Causes And Treatment
Autism is a spectrum disorder which means that it has a wide range of variation in the ways it affects the people. Every child with this disorder has unique, symptoms, characteristics and challenges. An individual with this disorder have problems regarding social interaction, communication, behavior and empathy.
The intensity of disability and combination of symptoms varies person to person. In this article, we will describe, types, characteristics, causes, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder, so read the article till the end.
Types Of Autism Spectrum Disorder
As we mentioned above, there are 5 types of the autistic spectrum, which we will explain briefly below:
Autism Or Kanner Syndrome
People in this type are affected in terms of their verbal language and body. They lack social interaction and show repetitive behavior.
A person affected with this syndrome shows a lack of empathy towards other because he does not know how to express his emotional status and how to interpret his body language.
It is one of the rarest disorders because only a few cases of people with this condition have been found worldwide. People with this syndrome have severe delays in language or in motor coordination. They also show a serious, continuous and progressive cognitive deterioration.
Generalized Developmental Disorder Not Specified
People who suffer from it have difficulty in communicating, behaving and socializing with others.
Childhood Disintegration Disorders
This type of disorder develops in a strange way since after having developed the child cognitively correctly during his 3 or 4 years. The first symptoms that appear in this type of condition is anxiety, hyperactivity, irritability, then comes the lack of interest and the loss of social skills and the deterioration of speech and language.
Characteristics Of Autism
The main symptoms or characteristics of autism spectrum disorder usually appear after the three years.
Difficulty Relating To Others
A child with this disorder has many problems regarding social interaction as he moves away from other to focus all his attention towards a specific object or a person for a long period of time. These children seem to be different from others and always tend to avoid eye contact with others.
Difficulties To Communicate
They have so much verbal and non verbal communication problems that sometimes they are unable to communicate with others. And if a child speaks he tends to create a problematic dialogue for the other person, in which they do not focus on what they are saying and repeat the same words or phrases all the time.
Lack Of Empathy
They find it very hard and sometimes unable to recognize the body language and emotions of other people that is why they fail to understand and not adapt to their environment.
Usually they are found doing the repetitive and stereotyped movements. Sometimes their anger and anxiety provoke self-injurious behavior.
Difficulty In Self-Recognition
A child with this disorder also finds it nearly impossible to recognize himself as a person and tend to talk about himself as he was talking about someone else. It is also common that they do not respond when their name is called.
Causes Of The Autistic Spectrum
The exact cause of the autism spectrum disorder is still unknown, however, various factors have been found which are relate to this disorder and are said to increase the chances of this disorder. Some of the factors are given below:
More than 100 genes are found in different chromosomes which are said to be the cause of development of autism spectrum disorder. People who show the changes in these genes known as mutations are more likely to develop it.
Genes And The Environment
It is said that if a person is more vulnerable to the conditions because of genetic mutations, he is more likely to have develop this disorder. For example, some infection or the contact with some chemical substance of the environment can be the reasons.
It has been also found that there are some biological factors that may cause this disorder, such as problems with excessive growth of some parts of the brain, issues with brain connections and te problems with the immune system, etc.
Treatment Of Autism
No specific treatment to cure this disorder has been discovered yet. However, some therapies are used to stable the person suffering from autism spectrum disorder, as much as possible. Also many techniques are used to minimize the symptoms of autism.
It is proven that the early detection of this disorder and the early intervention has many positive effects in terms of the minimization of symptoms. Among the main educational treatments of autistic spectrum disorder are the following:
Behavior Modification Therapy
Using this therapy the desired behaviors are reinforced in the child and the unwanted ones are reduced as much as possible. It also helps to trains the family or his caregivers that what they should do if they find child engaging in inappropriate behavior.
Behavioral Therapy And Communication
This type of therapy helps to train the child that how to act in certain social scenarios and to find the best ways to communicate with others.
The parents and families are taught how to play and interact with the child which will help him to develop his social interaction skills.
In this therapy the child is trained to develop his social skills effectively in terms of having appropriate behavior and communication.
In this therapy the child is educated to learn to perform the daily life which will help to improve his individual and social skills.
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