A mental illness that causes a rapid change in moods and ability to function is called bipolar disorder. It is named bipolar because it comprises two poles, one where dominant factors are depression and stress and another where dominant factors are mania or hypomania.

Bipolar Disorder I And II

Bipolar disorder has been divided into sub-categories according to its severeness and some symptoms. Type I and type II bipolar disorders are highly discussed among them. Women are mostly affected by this than men.

This article will provide you the information about type I and type II of the bipolar disorder, their symptoms causes and treatment, so read the article till the end.

Bipolar Type I

Bipolar Type I

This type of bipolar disorder is the most easily diagnosed because it comprises the most familiar elevated mood known as mania. A person suffering from bipolar I at least has one episodes of both mania and depression.

Mania is extreme enthusiasm or an obsession and manic is a period of abnormally exalted mood and high energy, along with abnormal behavior that disturbs life routine.

According to a survey, in US, about 6 million people or 2.5% of the U.S. population suffers from bipolar disorder from which about 1% of the population in the U.S. is likely to have bipolar 1 disorder.

Symptoms

Symptoms of type 1

For a person to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder I it is necessary to have at least one manic and one major depressive episode. The major depressive episode can occur after or before the depressive episode.

Symptoms Of Mania

  • Grandiosity.
  • Diminished need for sleep.
  • Excessive talking or pressured speech.
  • Racing thoughts or flight of ideas.
  • Clear evidence of distractibility.
  • Increased level of goal-focused activity at home, at work, or sexually.
  • Excessive pleasurable activities, often with painful consequences.

Symptoms Of Depression

  • Significant weight loss or gain or significant loss or increase in appetite.
  • Hypersomnia or insomnia – too much sleep or too little.
  • Psychomotor retardation or agitation – lethargic or agitated movements and demeanor; can be seen by others.
  • Loss of energy or fatigue.
  • Decrease in self-worth or feelings of guilt.
  • Decreased concentration ability or marked indecisiveness.
  • Preoccupation with death or suicide; patient has a plan or has attempted suicide.

Bipolar Type II

Bipolar Type II

The person experiences at least one major period of depression or more than one severe depressive periods but they return to their routine functions between these episodes. People affected by this type usually, seek treatment because for them its symptoms are extreme. But in reality, these are less than bipolar I.

Bipolar II is a little more common than bipolar I, and women are its victim commonly more than in men. As described earlier, a person with bipolar type II experiences depressed episodes, just same as seen in bipolar I, but in addition, also experiences hypomanic episodes instead of manic episodes.

Symptoms

Symptoms of bipolar 2

Symptoms of psychosis are not included in hypomania that is why some people affected by bipolar 2 find it to be pleasurable or creative.

Because hypomania is not severe as mania, it has less of a negative impact on a personal life. Treatment for bipolar 2 is typically pursued during depressive episodes and not episodes of hypomania.

Symptoms of Hypomania

  • Grandiosity or inflated self-esteem.
  • Diminished need for sleep.
  • Pressured speech.
  • Racing thoughts or flight of ideas.
  • Clear evidence of distractibility.
  • Psychomotor or movement agitation at home, at work, or sexually.
  • Engaging in activities which have painful consequences.

Symptoms of Depression

  • Depressed mood.
  • Lack of pleasure or interest in all or nearly all activities.
  • Sleeping too little or too much.
  • Significant weight loss/gain or significant appetite increase/decrease.
  • Overly slow or agitated movements.
  • Loss of energy or fatigue.
  • Feelings of guilt or a lack of self-esteem.
  • Lack of concentration and difficulty making decisions.
  • Constant thoughts of death or suicide; patient has a plan or has attempted suicide.

The Main Difference Between Type 1 and 2

The main Difference Between Type 1 and 2

In terms of depression both bipolar type I and type II have the same signs and symptoms. Usually, it is very difficult to tell just by looking at the symptoms of depression that the person has bipolar 1 or II. The only difference lies in mania. Type 1 includes mania while type 2 consist hypomania.

Treatment Of Bipolar disorder

  • Among the psychotherapies, the cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown advantageous supplementing with medication to treat such disorders and is often used by psychiatrists. This therapy consists of total 16 sessions, which are further divided into a period of 6 to 9 months.
  • It is necessary as it helps the person to identify the situations in which he begins to change his mood, applying techniques to prevent having manic or depressive episodes and help her to get the confidence to face and solve the problems that arise in her daily life due to this disorder.

Treatment Of Bipolar disorder

  • It is also used which involves intense relaxation, concentration and focused attention to achieve an altered state of consciousness. This allows a person with bipolar disorder to explore thoughts, emotions and memories that may be hidden from his/her conscious mind. In this condition, the therapist may be able to talk to about his personality and give tips and tricks to overcome it.
  • Most often, to stable mood and control manic and depressive periods, taking some drugs are mandatory.  One of the most often used mood stabilizers is Lithium and it can be used to control both manic and depressive periods. Treatment with Lithium requires a dose that is not too low or too high because it can be toxic, therefore, this should be administered by a psychiatrist.
Note: When the correct frequency of usage of the dose is established, the attending psychiatrist can control it. Before using drugs, we get to know the side effects of using that similarly, the treatment with lithium can have unpleasant consequences but they usually disappear with time.

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