Geography is derived from the Greek word Geographia which means the structure of the Earth. Geography is devoted to the study of land, the phenomena, the climate, the features and the inhabitants of the Earth.

Eratosthenes was the Greek geographer who first used the term Geography. Muslim Scientists have made a great contribution in the field of geography and Earth sciences and the most notable are Al-Khuwarzami, Abu Zayd Al-Balkhi and Abu Rehan Beruni.

Geography is mainly divided into two parts and If you are interested to know about them then in this article, we will describe the categories of Geography, so read the article until the end.

Physical Geography

physical geography

As it is clear from the name, physical geography is referred to the Earth Sciences. It is devoted to the study of Structure and problems of Earth. The atmosphere, climate, flora and fauna, soil, oceans and landforms etc are studied under this category as these are the physical aspects of the Earth.  Other global issues are also considered in this branch. This is further sub-divided in the following branches:

  • Climatology

The word logy means the study hence climatology means the study of climate. This branch focuses not only on the study of climate also its effects on biological and physical conditions of the earth. It is not just limited to this, this discipline also studies climates of the region, global, local and the ways by which is this affected by human and natural activities.

  • Geomorphology

This branch deals with the process of changes in the land surface i.e. shaping, destruction and formation of landforms.

  • Meteorology

This branch is one with which we are most familiar with as it is an important part of the daily news. It comprises the short-term forecasting of weather along with the parameters of moisture and pressure of air and temperature etc.

  • Pedology

Earth surface contains several types of soil with different specifications and this branch deals with the study of types of the Soil.

  • Hydrology

This deals with the study of water on the earth’s surface along with its interaction with biological and natural factors.

  • Oceanography

It branches is not only related to the study of oceans and seas across the world but also to the marine life. Ecosystems, marine life, waves, currents, tides, natural resources, marine geology, chemical substances and others factors are dealt with.

  • Coastal Geography

The interactions between oceans and the land are studied under this branch also the processes like coastal erosion, sea level changes and sediment movement are dealt in this.

  • Glaciology

Glaciers on this earth along with the melting and formation of ice and the phenomena of global warming are dealt in this.

  • Bio-geography

It is referrers to the division of different plant and animal species present on the earth. Also, the processes of the dwelling of certain species are also dealt in this.

  • Landscape Ecology

This branch is referred to the study of inter-connection between different ecosystems and ecological processes.

  • Paleogeography

 This branch encompasses the analysis of geographical features in relation to living species in historical times, hence a mixture of history and geography.

  • Geomatics

This is the field in which collection, storage and analysis of several geographic features are done using scientific techniques i.e. GIS, remote sensing and computational geography. In remote sensing, different sensors and satellites are used to analyze the different feature of Earth from a remote distance. This information is used to make regional planning.

  • Quaternary Science

Quaternary period is the time which comprises two major eras of the geological system;

  • The Holocene.
  • The Pleistocene.

This branch deals with the study that how were these processes occurred and during that period what were the consequences of geographical conditions.

Human Geography

Human geography

The processes and patterns that make up the society, including the political, social, economic and cultural aspects are studied under this category. Also, the study of Humans’ cultures and their activities are studied. This branch is further divided into following categories.

  • Cultural Geography

As we move across the world, the cultures vary across the regions. Culture includes the perimeters of religion, economy, beliefs and languages. The entire aspects of culture are devoted to this branch.

  • Historical Geography

The history of the relation between human and environment is dealt in this. It also involves different features of Earth and how they were changed over time?

  • Sport Geography

This branch encompasses the sports of different regions and their effects on the environment.

  • Economic Geography

This studies a region’s economic activities with respect to its Geography along with international trade, transportation, economic development and others.

  • Political Geography

It deals with the study of how politics influence the region. It studies the different aspect of politics that can affect the society.

  • Military Geography

This branch of Geography deals with the study of military troops, their distribution and facilities.

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