All plants from weeds to the tallest trees need water to grow. Water is one of the most essential requirements for plants and other living things. Plants absorb water through their roots and then it is absorbed through the stems and nourishes the entire plant.

How Do Plants Release Water: Transpiration Experiment

Plants most important resource is water and they may die if they cant get water properly actually water is food for plants. You might don’t know that plants also expel water with the help of their leaves. This cannot be seen from the naked eye since droplets are very small.

You’ll need:

  • Plastic bag.
  • String.
  • A plant.
  • A scale.
  • Masking tape.

Step No – 01

First of all, you should choose a plant from your home or school. You should take the bigger plant as it is better for the experiment due to branches. It is better if its a shrub or a small tree in a sunny location. If you take a small tree its advantage is that you will have more branches and experiment will be done more easily.

Once you have decided a plant than you’ll experiment on, so tie a plastic bag on one of the branches of the plant with leaves. Place the plastic bag on the branch for two to three days. This has to replicate what is shown in the image.

Choose a Plant
source: http://pasturegenetics.com

Make sure that the plastic bag is tied properly since strong winds might rip it out! This might sound obvious but if you are doing the experiment in a shared place than you should tell your neighbors or classmate about the experiment otherwise they might take off the plastic bag mistakenly.

Step No – 02

Once you have done all that you should pay a great attention to your plant and water it daily as you do before. As we know that a good scientist never forgets about his experiment. If you see your plant with great concentration you’ll notice that water drops are gathered inside the plastic bag and if you are doing the experiment in hot summer days you will notice a lot of water is gathered in the plastic bag and plastic bag will look misty.

water droplet
source: http://www.sciencepic.com

Step No – 03

Why Does Water Appear In The Plastic Bag?

Do you want to know what happened? Plants release water through very small holes throughout the surface of their leaves. When days are so hot due to heat water of droplets expelled through these holes and evaporate. This is the water accumulated in the plastic bag comes from.

water on bag
source: http://sunsetwesterngardencollection.com

Step No 4

Why do plants release water? Plants release water to nourish the whole plant water from the soil is absorbed and excess water has to be expelled. This particular process is known as transpiration- yes like in humans. when transpiration is described along with evaporation – what happens to plant – then it is called as evapotranspiration.

Plants have the ability to release water even when they are injured but that’s totally a different process, it is not linked with transpiration and evaporation as it has some other causes and reasons.

plants release water
source: http://pasturegenetics.com

Evapotranspiration rates change depending upon the condition of the climate. It depends upon some environmental factors including weather, humidity, and type of soil. The process evapotranspiration is actually very important as it brings a good 10 percent water in the atmosphere of our planet.

Step No – 05

You will be able to do the experiment of transpiration with the help of these steps. Try the transpiration experiment to confirm it.

Why Does Transpiration Occur?

So how did the water sneak out of the plants? When it’s a hot day, you might get a little sweaty. Plants “sweat” as well. Similar to how we lose water through our skin, plants lose water through their leaves. Although you might not be able to see them, plants have small pores, or holes, on their leaves.

Take a look at the bottom of a leaf under a microscope, and you will be able to see these holes, which are known as stomata. This is where plants can lose water through transpiration.

Transpiration
source: http://sunsetwesterngardencollection.com

Even though it’s an invisible process, the loss of water from plants through transpiration is an important part of the water cycle because it adds a lot of water to our air. In just one year, every leaf on earth can send out much more than its own weight in water. In fact, a large oak tree can contribute 40,000 gallons of water a year to the air!

Result

During your transpiration experiment, the plants will lose water, even though they are in the bags. The broad-leafed plants will lose a little more than the thin-leafed plants, but depending on the size of the plant, it may not be measurable.

What Transpiration Actually Is?

Transpiration is actually a process in which water travels in the whole plant and its evaporation occurs from the aerial parts such as leaves, stem, and flowers. Water is essential for plants but only a certain amount of water is taken up by the roots is used for plants growth and metabolism. The remaining 97 or 99.5 % of water is lost by transpiration or guttation.

The surfaces of the leaves are dotted with pores called as stomata, and in numerous of plants, they are on the undersides of the foliage. The stomata on the leaves are bordered by guard cells and their stomatal accessory cells which are together known as a stomatal complex that opens or close the pores.

The transpiration occurs through the stomatal apertures and can be thought of as a necessary “cost” associated with the opening of the stomata to allow the diffusion of carbon dioxide gas from the air for photosynthesis.

final
source: http://www.wesgogreen.com

Transpiration helps to cool plants, changes the osmotic pressure of the cells and enables mass flow of mineral nutrients and water from the roots to shoots. The two major factors which actually influence the rate of water flow from the soil to the roots.

The conductivity of the soil which is known as hydraulic conductivity and the magnitude of the pressure gradient through the soil. Both of these factors affect the rate of bulk flow of water moving from the roots to the stomatal pores in the leaves via the xylems.

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