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What Are The Main Branches Of Biology And Their Definition?

Biology is the branch of science that studies the life of living organisms including their physical structure, development, function, chemical composition, and evolution etc.  As a science, it has multiple branches which also studies nutrition, reproduction, and morphogenesis etc.

What Are The Main Branches Of Biology

Each branch hangs from total seven fields and they are animal, medical, evolutionary, microscopic, environmental, chemistry related, structure, and other miscellaneous issues.

In this article, we will describe what the main branches of biology are and their definition, if you are interested to know a little about each branch, read the article till the end.

Cellular Biology

Cellular Biology

Cellular biology is the branch of biology which involves the study of function and structure of cells as well as their interaction with the environment. This is a vast discipline which includes the following branches:


This branch lies under the cellular biology that usually studies living cells including their certain properties, chemistry, their physical structure, and division in order to understand how they interact with the environment.


This branch only focuses on the cellular tissues which are studied from a microscopic point of view.



Microbiology is that branch of biology which focuses on the study of microorganisms or the smallest living things. The naked human eyes can never see these microorganisms; they are visible only through a microscope. This discipline studies how these microorganisms affect others.

Further branches of this field are:


This branch studies the particles found in the water, air or other deposits such as spores, grains, and pollen. It focuses on how they interact with nature.


This branch studies Protists, which are eukaryotic organisms. Eukaryotic organism cannot be classified as either animal, plant or fungi but are more similar in characteristics to algae.

Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology

Molecular biology is the discipline of biology which includes the study of the biological procedure on a molecular level. The fact is that this branch shares components of biology with chemistry, especially genetics and biochemistry. Its main purpose is to study the interactions of different cell systems.

Evolutionary Biology

Evolutionary Biology

This discipline focuses on the research that how genres of life are changing and how they are generating new forms of life.

Developmental Biology

The study of the development of living organisms from birth until death.


The study of the traces left by living creatures in the past in order to study its activity such as old footprints, trails, etc.


The study related to developmental biology, as it classifies and studies the structure and the types of all living organisms.


The study of fossils left by prehistoric means of life.


This field researches how heritage and a mortal being’s phenotypes can change nucleotide sequences in their genetics.

Marine Biology

Marine Biology

The branch of biology which deals with the study of all the creatures who live within the marine environment is known as marine biology. This field includes a series of specializations which are focused in more certain areas. Some of these are:

  • Ichthyology: The study of fish.
  • Malacology: The study of mollusk.
  • Phycology:  The study of seaweed.
  • Cetology: The study of marine mammals.

Medical Biology

Medical Biology

Medical associated branches of biology include the study of all fields that are related to illnesses, functions and, alteration of the human body.


It is the study of the functions of living beings. Physiology deals with the study of reproductive, respiratory, nervous system etc.


Genetics is the branch of biology that studies biological heritage which is transferred from generation to generation. It is a quite complex branch whose main purpose is the study of genes produced by segments of DNA and RNA.


This branch of biology revolves around the study of the structure of any multi-cellular organism at the macroscopic level.


It is the study of all embryos.


It is the study of endocrine glands and the study of the function of hormones and their influence in a human body.


The study of diseases, their effect on living beings, as well as researching its successful control and eradication


Immunology focuses on how the immune system works in the body and also experiments on how it can be built.

There are also other important branches in the field of medical biology, which are the following:

  • Medicine.
  • Neurology.
  • Parasitology.
  • Physiology.
  • Koliology.
  • Mastology.
  • Pharmacology.
  • Virology.
  • Urology.
  • Toxicology.
  • Surgery.
  • Splanchnology.
  • Pathology.



Mycology is the discipline of biology which involves the study solely of fungi. Its main focus is on each and every component of their characteristics and how they connect with the environment.



Zoology is the study of throughout animal life by focusing on their behavior, development, and physiology. Given below are some names of the subcategories of the zoology:

  • Entomology.
  • Herpetology.
  • Ichthyology.
  • Mammalogy.
  • Ornithology.
  • Anthology.
  • Primatology.
  • Veterinary science.



Botany is the branch of biology that deals with the study of plants. It is a very vast field as it studies everything related to the world of plants. Through it, we can describe, identify, classify and learn about, morphology or physiology and reproduction of the natural beings of the plant world.

Environmental Biology

Environmental Biology

The study of the way in which all the elements of the environments interacts with each other and their influence on the environment is known as environmental biology. The branches of environmental biology are:


The study of all organic particles present in the air.


This study of changes in the climate and how they can affect the living beings.


This branch is closely related to chemical biology. This discipline studies how nutrients influence every living cell through metabolism.


Ecology is the study of the relationship of living beings on the planet with their natural habitat.


It relates to the study of geology by focusing how organisms interact with their environment and surroundings.

Note: This article is merely informative. You can also share information regarding branches of Biology in the comments section.

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